Influenza is a potentially serious disease that can lead to hospitalization and, in certain cases, even cause death. Each influenza season is different, and infection with the influenza virus can affect people in different ways.
The annual seasonal influenza vaccine is the best way to protect against influenza. It is shown that vaccination has many Benefits such as reducing the risk of illness due to influenza, hospitalizations and even the risk of pediatric deaths related to influenza.
Influenza vaccines cause antibodies to develop in the body approximately two weeks after vaccination. These antibodies provide protection against infection with the viruses included in the vaccine.
Everyone 6 months of age or older should be vaccinated against influenza each season. You must be vaccinated against the flu before the flu begins to spread.
Tetanus is a very serious disease caused by the toxin of a bacterium called clostridium tetanus and occurs as a result of contamination of wounds with this germ. Tetanus is not transmitted from person to person.
Tetanus is an infection caused by bacteria. When they are inside the body, these bacteria produce a toxin or poison. The powerful tetanus toxin acts as a poison that affects the central nervous system, causing generalized muscular rigidity, painful spasms, difficulty breathing and swallowing, seizures and other symptoms that threaten the life of the patient. People with tetanus often have to spend several weeks in intensive care. The total recovery can take months. If left untreated, tetanus can be deadly.
The tetanus vaccine contains inactivated tetanus toxin or toxoid. It can not produce the disease, but stimulates the production of protective antibodies. The vaccine It does not protect against infection but it does against the effects of the toxin that the bacteria produces.
Most people who get the tetanus vaccine do not have serious problems with it. However, side effects can occur. Most side effects are mild, which means they do not affect the activities of daily living.
Tetanus infection can cause serious health problems and even death. Make sure everyone in your family is up to date with the vaccine.
Yellow fever is a disease caused by a virus that It is transmitted by the bite of a mosquito and is found in the tropical and subtropical regions of South America and sub-Saharan Africa. Currently there is no specific treatment for this disease, however a yellow fever vaccine that confers effective protection.
It presents with signs ranging from fever and headache, to liver damage, black vomit (blood) and renal failure.
Between 20% and 50% of the patients may develop serious complications in organs such as the liver, brain and kidneys with fatal outcome.
The greatest risk is when visiting jungle areas of South America and sub-Saharan Africa without having been vaccinated. The seasons with the greatest increase in transmission are in South America from January to May and in Africa from July to October.
Its application is recommended in adults and children over 9 months of age who are directed to a high risk area.
Rabies is a virus that attacks mainly mammals, causing disease at the level of the Central Nervous System.
The rage currently becomes fatal in up to 99.9% of cases, it is estimated that there are approximately 70,000 deaths per year around the world and up to 2/3 of the countries of the planet are affected by this disease.
It is transmitted by the bite, deep scratch or contact of an exposed wound with a prominent amount of saliva from an animal infected with rabies. 95% of human cases of rabies are due to dog bites in Asia and Africa.
The first manifestations of the disease can occur with fever, pain, numbness, tingling or burning at the site of the wound. These symptoms precede the presentation of the disease, which can manifest itself in 2 ways; Paralytic or Furious.
Furious rage is distinguished by symptoms such as fear of water, delirium, agitation, discomfort in the throat, difficulty swallowing fluids and the saliva itself, vomiting, convulsions and coma.
Paralytic rabies manifests with paralysis, decreased voice volume, neck stiffness, headache, confusion and coma.
It is recommended for certain international travelers, based on the occurrence of animal rabies in the destination country. It is very important for travelers who practice the profession of veterinarians, animal caretakers, field biologists, speleologists, missionaries and certain laboratory workers.
Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease. It is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The VHA is spread from person to person through contact with feces (fecal matter) of infected people, which can easily occur if someone does not wash their hands properly. Hepatitis A can also be spread through food, water or objects contaminated with HAV.
It is characterized by fatigue, malaise, loss of appetite, fever, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dark urine and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes). Among children and older adults, the infection usually causes severe symptoms.
Hepatitis B is a serious infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis B virus. Hepatitis B can cause a condition that lasts a few weeks, or it can become a lifelong condition.
The hepatitis B vaccine is very safe and effective in preventing this disease. However, vaccines, like any medication, can have side effects, although the serious side effects caused by this vaccine are extremely rare. If side effects occur, they are often very mild, such as a low fever (less than 101 degrees Fahrenheit) or pain in the arm where the injection was given.
Dengue is a disease transmitted by mosquito bites that affects 390 million people each year. Although it is usually a mild illness, it can be deadly.
The virus is also known as " bone-breaker fever " because of the symptoms it causes.
Dengue vaccines are designed to prevent the spread of the disease.
Like its viral cousins, chikungunya and zika , the dengue virus is transmitted to humans through mosquito bites. Dengue is usually spread when:
A mosquito (usually of the Aedes species ) bites an infected human.
This mosquito is now infected with dengue fever. Mosquitoes are only carriers of the disease, it does not affect them like humans.
The mosquito bites a human. That human is now infected with the virus and will henceforth infect unaffected mosquitoes that bite him.
A preventive vaccine against HIV is administered to seronegative people, in order to prevent such infection in the future. The vaccine would teach the person's immune system to recognize and effectively fight HIV in case that person is exposed to HIV.
The preventive vaccine against HIV is administered to people who do not are infected with HIV, while the therapeutic vaccine against HIV is administered to people who already are infected with HIV
Treatment options for HIV infection have improved greatly in the last 30 years. However, anti-HIV drugs can have side effects, can be expensive and difficult to obtain in some countries. In addition, some people can develop resistance to certain anti-HIV medications and must change them.
Current HIV prevention tools, how to use condoms correctly and the Pre- exposure prophylaxis ( PrEP ), work well. However, researchers believe that a preventive vaccine against HIV would be the most effective way to completely eliminate new HIV infections.
Pneumococcus is a bacterium that can cause serious infections. The most vulnerable are young children under 5 years of age and, in particular, children under 2 years of age. It also affects older people, especially those over 65 or with diseases that predispose to infections by this germ.
The name of this bacterium comes from its capacity to produce pneumonia, that is, an infection in the lung.
But it also causes meningitis, a serious, even deadly, infection of the covers that surround the brain and spinal cord, which is more common in younger children, below 2 years of age, and can leave sequelae, such as deafness and others even more serious.
It can also cause bacteremia, which is an infection of the blood and leads to high fever.
In addition, it produces other infections not so serious, but more frequent, such as sinusitis and otitis. Pneumococcus is the second cause of bacterial otitis media in childhood.
Children should be vaccinated because vaccination is safe and effective in preventing serious pneumococcal diseases, such as meningitis and its sequelae. It can also decrease the chance of getting pneumonia and otitis.
This vaccine is safe, it can not produce the disease and the most frequent reactions are mild, such as pain, redness and swelling in the area of the injection, drowsiness, irritability, decreased appetite or moderate fever in the hours following its administration. Serious reactions are very rare.
It is a bacterium that causes a group of potentially serious diseases such as meningitis and sepsis (generalized infection). It can occur at any age but it is more frequent in children under 5 years of age, with greater severity in children under one year of age.
It is transmitted from person to person through respiratory secretions that infected patients (or carriers) They expel when coughing, sneezing or talking.
It permanently affects the African Continent in the region known as "Meningococcus Belt" which corresponds to an area of Sub-Saharan Africa. The risk is greater during times of drought.
The seriousness of these infections is that, although the patient receives adequate antibiotic treatment and quickly, there is a high percentage that remains with sequelae and fatal cases also occur.
The severity and unpredictability of meningococcal disease means that vaccination in a timely manner, aimed at all serogroups of meningococcus that most frequently produce disease, is fundamental.
The majority of side effects are mild or moderate, the most frequent occurring at the site of application (arm): pain, swelling and hardening of the skin. Other effects can be nausea and headache, usually the reactions disappear during the next 3 to 5 days of onset.